Some jokes fall victim to this, when a history lesson is essentially required to explain the joke to folks who weren't around at the time the joke was funny.
One in a military-looking uniform with a hammer-and-sickle badge on the side is whispering in heavily accented English about his worries that the Berlin Wall may not last.
The other man, sporting a glorious mullet, clips his absolutely gigantic cell phone to his belt before putting his hand on the other man's shoulder reassuringly.
When viewed by someone with even a shaky grasp of history, the historical period is blindingly obvious.
Such a scene would have been made at the time with the focus entirely on Cold War politics, but the first thing the modern audience notices are the clunky cell phone and the mullet. Zeerust is when a work's depiction of the becomes dated, so all works with a far-future setting belong there, not here.
If the material's universal but the outfits are dated to the minute, that's Fashion Dissonance.
Compare Anachronism Stew, which is one possible way to avert/subvert this.
While just about every work becomes somewhat of a period piece after it becomes more than a decade old due to the characters referencing old trends, wearing out of style fashions and using out of date technology, this trope only really applies to works that wear their dates so blatantly that a viewer can identify the era or even year it was made in as soon as they begin to watch it.
For example, while the 1990s sitcoms dated due to the rapidly-changing nature of what's considered "hip".
Important Sidenote: To avoid questionable examples, do not add a work less than 10 years old unless the situation is especially unusual.
(Being completely overtaken by events by time of airing, and being called "instantly dated" by the press, have both qualified in the past.) For most works, it won't be particularly clear which ones really do bleed their production date out of every pore until roughly a decade has passed.
If the work's severe datedness also makes it inaccessible to modern audiences, then you have Values Dissonance.