For example, Southern Democrats were able to make sure that laws against lynching did not pass.
Starting in 1890, Southern Democrats began to pass state laws that took away the rights African Americans had gained. For example, they included: Things were separate, but not equal. Individuals, groups, police, and huge crowds of people could hurt or even kill African Americans, without the government trying to stop them or punishing them. Segregation in housing was a problem across the United States.
African-Americans gathered and organized the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
However, the Movement got political and financial support from labor unions, religious groups, and some white politicians, like Lyndon B. Activists of all races came to join African-Americans in marches, sit-ins, and protests. It helped get five federal laws and two amendments to the Constitution passed. government tried to enforce the rights of ex-slaves in the South through a process called Reconstruction. By the 1890s, the Southern states' legislatures were all-white again.
These officially protected African Americans' rights. It also helped change many white people's attitudes about the way black people were treated and the rights they deserved. Southern Democrats, who did not support civil rights for blacks, completely ruled the South.
Instead, African American activists decided to use a combination of protests, nonviolence, and civil disobedience.
This is how the African-American Civil Rights Movement of 1954-1968 began.
They also would not rent apartments in white areas.
Black people fought in both World War I and World War II.
Under segregation, blacks could not sit in front of whites - they had to sit in the back of the bus.
Also, if a white person told a black person to move so they could sit down, the black person had to.
Ferguson that segregation was legal, as long as things were "separate but equal." In 1951, thirteen black parents filed a class action lawsuit against the Board of Education in Topeka, Kansas. But segregation in all other places was still legal.
In the lawsuit, the parents argued that the black and white schools were not "separate but equal." They said the black school was much worse than the white one. Civil rights leaders focused on Montgomery, Alabama, because the segregation there was so extreme.
Many African Americans could not get mortgages to buy houses.